Naturally Derived Whitening Agents Alternative To Hydroquinone (IFSCC Poster Presentation by Wong Lip Wih, PhD)
To date, hydroquinone is still widely used for the case of hyperpigmentation disorder particularly in the tropical countries in South East Asia. However, with the unwanted side effects caused by long term use of hydroquinone, an alternative to hydroquinone derived from plant materials is indeed the main objective of this investigation
Methods Used: The effect of the cream containing the single extracts of Anthocarpus heterophilus (H) and Antocarpus altilis (A) were examined. . Comparison studies have also been made on the biological activities of single extracts and the combined plants extracts either as combination of two plant extracts (HA) or as an extract of two combined plants (AHA). The plant materials are extracted as single materials and as mixed plant materials (50:50 ratio) extracted simultaneously. The whitening activity was determined according to the method of Vanni et.al. using L-tyrosine solution as the substrate. The clinical testing was also carried out in a group of 32 carefully selected human volunteers. The human volunteers were carefully selected in terms of age, gender and habitat area where they have been continuously exposed to sunlight.
The skin condition of the volunteers are analysed with Mexameter before the start of the experimentation (t=0) and after 30 days (t=30) of the application of the test cream containing 4% various extracts. We use Hydroquinone 4% cream as the realistic comparison of the whitening activities of these extracts. Dermatological safety test conducted using Repeated Opened Patch Test (ROPT) and by Single Closed Patch Test (SCPT).
Results Obtained: The whitening activities of Anthocarpus heterophilus (H) was higher than that of Antocarpus antilis (A). The whitening activities of the extract of the combined plant materials (AHA) was higher than that of the combination of two plant extracts (HA). Indeed the whitening activity of the extract of the combined plant materials AHA was almost equal to that of Hydroquinione.(HQ) The rank order is therefore as follow: HQ>AHA>HA>H>A. The clinical results of the skin of the volunteers after 30 days of using the cream containing various extracts showed similar trends Discussion and Conclusion: Extraction of mixed plants is of high interest from an economical point of view since bioactive phytochemicals may act synergistically and thus, a product with particular added value can be obtained from the simultaneous extraction. Indeed our experimentation shows that a saving of many machine and man hours using the extract of two combined plants (AHA) versus that of combination of two plant extracts (HA).
The cream containing extract of combined plant materials of Anthocarpus heterophilus and Anthocarpus antilis (AHA) has whitening activity equals to that of 4% Hydroquinone cream. From the ROPT and SCPT it was shown that AHA, HA , H and A did not cause any irritation nor allergic skin reaction. However, the Hydroquinone at both the ROPT and SCPT did cause some skin irritation.