Mangrove xylocarpus plants have been very useful plant in preventing floods nearby the coastal areas in many parts of Indonesian islands. The objective of this investigation is to assess the Sun Protection Factor of the cream containing Mangrove xylocarpus extract using a modified solar simulator which is portable in size, unlike the big, conventional solar simulator.
Methods Used: The sunscreen cream containing 10% of the Mangrove xylocarpus extract was made as test cream. The SPF of the resulting cream was tested in vitro using spectrocolorimeter method This result will be used as comparison with the SPF number obtained clinically using the modified Solar Simulator with Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) as the visual end point. A specially made adaptor was made with 5 different segments of the adaptor body containing different numbers of hexagonal holes giving a customized dose output ratio (hole 1 to hole 5 decreasing) : 100%. 80%, 60%, 40%, 20%. A total of 32 subjects with skin type IV were recruited for the study. On one side of each panelist’s forearm was radiated with the UV light and the adaptor installed thus giving 5 dose output simultaneously. On the other side of the forearm, 0.5 gram of the test cream was applied and then the SPF test was then carried out with the UV source and modified adaptor. About 24 hours after the irradiation, the forearm of each panelist was examined for erythema. The site with smallest perceptible erythema (faint redness with distinct edge) was selected as the MED. There should be one test site which shows no reaction, and the other should show progressively more erythema with increasing dose of UV exposure.
Results Obtained: The SPF for the test cream was calculated as follows: SPF = MED Test Material/MED Unprotected skin The SPF number obtained using the spectrocolorimeter method was found to be 16. The average SPF number of the test cream containing 10% of the Mangrove xylocarpus extract was found to be 14.72.
Discussion and Conclusion: The test cream was formulated containing only the Mangrove xylocarpus extract as the sunscreen active ingredient. The SPF number is expected to increase with increasing percentage of Mangrove xylocarpus used, however, more experiment must be conducted to confirm if any correlation exists between the SPF number obtained using the in vitro (spectocolorimeter method) and the in vivo (clinical method).The other important aspect of this investigation is the fact that a much more convenient method can now be used to measure the Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) and hence the SPF number using a portable UV simulator. This will eliminate the troubles of placing the panelist under the big UV source in the conventional way.
To date, hydroquinone is still widely used for the case of hyperpigmentation disorder particularly in the tropical countries in South East Asia. However, with the unwanted side effects caused by long term use of hydroquinone, an alternative to hydroquinone derived from plant materials is indeed the main objective of this investigation
Methods Used: The effect of the cream containing the single extracts of Anthocarpus heterophilus (H) and Antocarpus altilis (A) were examined. . Comparison studies have also been made on the biological activities of single extracts and the combined plants extracts either as combination of two plant extracts (HA) or as an extract of two combined plants (AHA). The plant materials are extracted as single materials and as mixed plant materials (50:50 ratio) extracted simultaneously. The whitening activity was determined according to the method of Vanni et.al. using L-tyrosine solution as the substrate. The clinical testing was also carried out in a group of 32 carefully selected human volunteers. The human volunteers were carefully selected in terms of age, gender and habitat area where they have been continuously exposed to sunlight.
The skin condition of the volunteers are analysed with Mexameter before the start of the experimentation (t=0) and after 30 days (t=30) of the application of the test cream containing 4% various extracts. We use Hydroquinone 4% cream as the realistic comparison of the whitening activities of these extracts. Dermatological safety test conducted using Repeated Opened Patch Test (ROPT) and by Single Closed Patch Test (SCPT).
Results Obtained: The whitening activities of Anthocarpus heterophilus (H) was higher than that of Antocarpus antilis (A). The whitening activities of the extract of the combined plant materials (AHA) was higher than that of the combination of two plant extracts (HA). Indeed the whitening activity of the extract of the combined plant materials AHA was almost equal to that of Hydroquinione.(HQ) The rank order is therefore as follow: HQ>AHA>HA>H>A. The clinical results of the skin of the volunteers after 30 days of using the cream containing various extracts showed similar trends Discussion and Conclusion: Extraction of mixed plants is of high interest from an economical point of view since bioactive phytochemicals may act synergistically and thus, a product with particular added value can be obtained from the simultaneous extraction. Indeed our experimentation shows that a saving of many machine and man hours using the extract of two combined plants (AHA) versus that of combination of two plant extracts (HA).
The cream containing extract of combined plant materials of Anthocarpus heterophilus and Anthocarpus antilis (AHA) has whitening activity equals to that of 4% Hydroquinone cream. From the ROPT and SCPT it was shown that AHA, HA , H and A did not cause any irritation nor allergic skin reaction. However, the Hydroquinone at both the ROPT and SCPT did cause some skin irritation.
To date, hydroquinone is still widely used for the case of hyper pigmentation disorder particularly in the tropical countries in South East Asia. However, with the unwanted side effects caused by long term use of hydroquinone, an alternative to hydroquinone derived from plant materials is indeed the main objective of this investigation. This can be used as alternative therapy or as follow up therapy. In the present investigation, the whitening efficacy of a novel extract complex WLW will be tested against the well known hydroquinone.
Methods Used: : A patented extract complex LW2610 consisting of Anthocarpus heterophilus, Anthocarpus antilis and Saccharum Officinarum has been specially designed to be the alternative to the hydroquinone. The tyrosinase inhibition activity of the complex was determined according to the method of Vanni et. Al. using L-tyrosine solution as the substrate.
The clinical test was carried out in a group of 32 carefully selected human volunteers. The skin condition of the volunteers were analyzed with Mexameter before the start of the experimentation (t=0) and after day 14 (t=14) and day 30 (t=30) of the application of the cream preparation. The test cream containing 4% of the extract complex LW2610 was tested clinically against Hydroquinone 4% cream. The same base formulation was used for the test cream, Hydroquinone cream and the placebo cream. The 4% Hydroquinone cream was used for comparison as it is the golden standard used for depigmentation therapy. Dermatological safety and irritation tests were conducted with Repeated Open Patch Test (ROPT) and Single Closed patch Test (SCPT)
Results Obtained: The tyrosinase inhibition activities of the complex was found to be higher than that of hydroquinone. Similarly, the clinical results from the mexameter show that the cream containing the botanical extract complex LW2610 has the better whitening efficacy than the 4% Hydroquinone cream.
Discussion and Conclusion: The very high whitening efficacy is attributed to the combination of the whitening activities of Anthocarpus heterophilus and Anthocarpus altilis and the exfoliating effect of the Saccharum officinarum . The use of the combined plant extracts with whitening activities Anthocarpus hetrophilus and Anthocarpus antilis with the extract that has exfoliating activity like Saccharum officinarum provide synergistic whitening and soft peeling effect and thus better brightening effect than that of hydroquinone. With the results of ROPT and SCPT, it was shown that the cream containing the botanical extract complex LW2610 did not cause any irritation at all. However, as expected the Hydroquinone cream in both the ROPT and SCPT did show some degree of skin irritation.
The cream containing 4% extract complex LW2610 has been shown to have better whitening activity than Hydroquinone 4% cream and in the ROPT and SCPT, it is shown to be much better tolerated than the Hydroquinone cream. Since the long term use of Hydroquinone cream can cause unwanted skin irritation, the cream containing 4% extract complex LW2610 will be a good alternative to Hydroquinone cream and as maintenance therapy.
In aesthetic and antiaging cream, there is often a strategic combination of peeling (such as glycolic acid) and whitening agents (such as arbutin, hydoquinone) The objective of this study is to look for naturally derived peeling and whitening agents that can work synergistically.
Methods Used: The study has been performed on the efficacy of Saccharum officinarum (SO) extract and Salacca edulis (SE) extract as the naturally derived whitening agents from the Indonesia rain forest. Saccharum officiniarum.
was chosed because of its natural peeling property while Salacca edulis was chosen because of its whitening activities obtained from previous studies. The cream containing 5% SO, cream containing 3% SE and cream containing combination of 3%SO and 5% SE have been made to investigate the whitening efficacy of the individual actives as well as the combined actives.
The placebo cream contains the same ingredients minus the extract as active.The group of volunteers were carefully selected in terms of gender, habitat and skin condition. Each panelist applies both the test and placebo cream on each side of their forearm twice a day. At the time intervals 0, 7,14 and 30 days, the skin was analysed with Mexameter
Results Obtained: The results show that the cream containing SO has better whitening efficacy compared to that of the cream with SE as the active. However, the cream containing the combined actives of SO and SE has the best efficacy of them all and indicated the synergy efficacy of the glycolic acid from SO and the flavonoid from SE. The Single Closed Patch Test (SCPT) and the Repeated Open Patch Test did not show any irritation.
Discussion and Conclusion: This study proves the synergistic effect of Saccharum officinarum and Salacca edulis as naturally derived whitening agents. The cream containing combined extract was proven to be safe for the skin. On the contrary, most of the skin care containing glycolic acid can often cause skin irritation Our next step of the experiment is to compare safety and the whitening efficacy of these herbal actives versus the actual alpha hydroxyl acids and whitening agents used in cosmeceutical preparation.